The effects of nuclear weapons. Credible nuclear deterrence, debunking "disarm or be annihilated". Realistic effects and credible nuclear weapon capabilities for deterring or stopping aggressive invasions and attacks which could escalate into major conventional or nuclear wars.

Thursday, August 25, 2016

Investigation of the Gamma Radiation Hazards Incident to an Underwater Atomic Explosion

ABOVE: Original Top Secret version of the BAKER nuclear test underwater burst fallout pattern (reprinted with ships positions deleted and less detail of hotspots in DASA 1251, the fallout patterns compendium), from Strope's Investigation of the Gamma Radiation Hazards Incident to an Underwater Atomic Explosion, a vital report listed on the U.S. Department of Energy website without a PDF; but they kindly scanned it in and emailed it to me last week, so it's now available for everyone to read and download on Scribd and also at Internet Archive,

We have uploaded to Scribd and Internet Archive a PDF of Walmer E. Strope's brilliant classic, originally classified March 1948 report deriving the 25 July 1946 CROSSROADS BAKER underwater nuclear test fallout and base surge dose patterns from the raw data (dose rate meters, film badge doses and films of the fallout plumes being deposited on the various ships or passing by them), Investigation of the Gamma Radiation Hazards Incident to an Underwater Atomic Explosion, U.S. Defense Nuclear Agency document DNA-6032F-C.8.4 and NNSA/NSO Nuclear Testing Archive report NV0048674.  This 110 pages report was kindly scanned and emailed to me by Nevada NNSA.

Although the fallout dose rate pattern for 1 hour after burst extracted from this report has been published before, the detailed information in it is vital to determining accurately the accumulated doses which depend on the arrival times of the fallout.  Strope discusses how he researched the report in his recent 32 chapter autobiography, Autobiography of a Nerd.  Fallout arrival times and integrated doses are vital for determining the ability to evacuate or shelter from the fallout in a terrorist event, like an improvised nuclear device detonated inside the cargo freight of a ship, off the coast of a city.

Jerry Strope (Walmer E. Strope), Autobiography of a Nerd, Chapter 6, At The Crossroads (pages 79-92):

"We met at Union Station on the cold gray Sunday morning of April 28, 1946, more or less prepared to ride the train across the country to San Francisco, where we would board the USS Wharton for the voyage to Bikini Atoll in the south Pacific. In addition to myself, there were the staff of the Ship Protection Section of Preliminary Design: LTC Dave Savaker, Henry Cochrane, Woody Armstrong, Charlie Ksanda, and Ken Lovell. With us were engineers and technicians from other parts of Buships, mostly strangers whom we would get to know well in the next six months. Forty or fifty strong, the Buships contingent to Operation Crossroads left Washington knowing little of what was to come. ...

"... During the spring of 1947, some of the results of the radiological measurements on the ships at Bikini began to come in. ... . I laid out a plot of the target array on my drafting board and began to plot the raw measurement data. I wasn’t quite sure what I was looking for but I knew what it was when I found it. Some of the ships showed higher readings than ships closer in to the burst. This should not have occurred if the base surge was the contaminating mechanism. I called the anomaly to Muddy’s attention. After some discussion, we decided to pursue the matter further. We needed the film badge data from the target ships, which would give us the total radiation exposure to compare with the contamination measurements. The film badge data for some reason were Top Secret. So we applied for a Top Secret clearance. Meanwhile, I began to refine the contamination data by adjusting to a common measurement time. ...

"All that summer I worked on the contamination patterns from the Crossroads underwater shot. I obtained dozens of photographs of the event: the luminous bulge, the white stem of water rising, the cauliflower cloud forming, the base surge at the foot of the collapsing column and the pendulous plumes dropping down from the cloud onto the ships in the target array. Some amateur photogrammetry proved that the location of these plumes matched the areas of high contamination measurements. I was convinced that most of the contamination came from the cloud fallout and not from the base surge. (I liked the word ‘fallout’ and was one of the first to use it.) ... Labor Day 1947 came and went. The Top Secret clearance seemed bogged down somewhere. Finally it arrived on the third of October. I requested the film badge data. ... The film badge data arrived. It confirmed my analysis of the contamination measurements. Moreover, by analyzing those target ships that were not under a fallout plume but were enveloped by the base surge, I concluded that over 90 percent of the radioactivity had come from cloud fallout and less than 10 percent from the base surge. We put the report to bed in January of 1948 and it was distributed as a Bureau of Ships classified report in March of that year. It bore one of my typical grandiose titles: Investigation of the Gamma Radiation Hazards Incident to an Underwater Atomic Explosion."

UPDATE: 31 August 2016

NATURE OF THE RADIOACTIVE DEBRIS AND NUCLEAR RADIATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN UNDERWATER NUCLEAR EXPLOSION, Secret - Restricted Data, DASA-1420, report 0117443[377394], uploaded to Scribd and also to Internet Archive

This comprehensive, formerly Secret-Restricted Data report by U.S. Naval Radiological Defense Laboratory staff Edward A. Schuert (who proved the validity of the hand fallout forecast at four hydrogen bomb tests of Operation Redwing, Bikini Atoll, 1956) and Louis B. Werner (the chemist who isolated plutonium for the first time in World War II), was kindly scanned and emailed to me by the NNSA/NSO Nuclear Testing Archive, which had the report's description but no PDF readily available on its database:


Above: In the previous post we examined how hard left wing fear mongering anti deterrence and civil defence hatred promoters have been promoting racist multiculturalism in the way Stalin and Hitler did.  Unless we get a handle on dealing with those who rant and promote dishonest agendas, progress will not be made to tackling terrorism by means that have been tried and tested at great cost.